What is Network Topology ?
Network topology is the arrangement of the various elements(links, nodes etc.) of a computer or biological network. The main network topologies are as follows:
Bus Topology(Linear Topology)
A bus topology is an arrangement in which the computers and the peripheral devices are connected to a common single length data line.
All the computers or devices are directly connected to the data line. The data is transmitted in small blocks known as packets.
Each packet has a header containing the destination address. When data is transmitted on the cable, the destination node identifies the address on the packet and thereby processes the data.
Ring or Circular Topology
In this type of topology, the node is connected to two and only two neighbouring nodes. The data travels in one direction only form node to node around the ring. After passing through each node, the data returns to the sending node.
In star topology, there persists a central node (hub), which is connected to all other nodes directly.
If one node has to take information form second node, then the data is taken from the second node to the first node through the central node or server.
A tree topology is an extension and variation of bus topology. Its basic structure is like an
inverted tree, where the root acts as a server. In tree topology, the nodes are intelinked in the form of tree.
If one node fails, then the node following that node gets detached from the main tree topology.
In mesh topology, each node is connected to all other nodes, so that it provides alternative route, in case if the host is either down or busy. We can also call it as extension of point –to-point (P2P) network.